The Ministry of Human Resource Development consists of two departments: (i) school education and literacy, and (ii) higher education.  In 2020-21, the Ministry has been allocated Rs 99,312 crore, the sixth highest allocation among all Ministries.  The allocation constitutes 3% of the central government’s estimated expenditure for 2020-21.   This note presents the trends in expenditure, and discusses some of the issues related to the education sector. 

The Department of School Education and Literacy under the Ministry is broadly responsible for education imparted between the ages of six to 18 years, i.e., school education.  Under the Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009 the government is mandated to provide elementary education to all children between six to 14 years of age.  Secondary education is imparted between classes nine to 12 for children between 14-18 years of age.  

In 2020-21, this Department has been allocated Rs 59,845 crore, accounting for 60% of the Ministry’s total allocation.  

The Department of Higher Education is responsible for higher education, and training for students above 18 years of age.  Higher education includes undergraduate and postgraduate courses, doctoral degrees, and certificates following the completion of 12 years of schooling or equivalent.   

In 2020-21, the Department has been allocated Rs 39,467 crore, accounting for 40% of the Ministry’s total allocation.  

Overview of finances

Budget Estimates 2020-21

The Ministry has been allocated Rs 99,312 crore in 2020-21.  This is a 4.7% increase over the revised estimate of 2019-20. [1]  

Table 1: Budget allocations for the MHRD (2020-21) (in Rs crore)

Department

Actuals

2018-19

RE

2019-20

BE

2020-21

% change (RE to BE)

School Education & Literacy

48,441

56,537

59,845

5.9%

Higher Education

31,904

38,317

39,467

3.0%

Total

80,345

94,854

99,312

4.7%

Note: BE – Budget Estimate; RE – Revised Estimates. 

Sources: Expenditure Budget, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2020-21; PRS.

Table 2 depicts the major heads under which the Ministry spends its funds (as a percentage of its total allocation).  In 2020-21, expenditure on centrally sponsored schemes (Samagra Shiksha and Mid-Day Meal Programme in Schools) constitute 50% of the estimated spending of the Ministry.  This is followed by expenditure towards autonomous bodies such as the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (9%) and grants to central universities (8%).  

Table 2:  Top expenditure heads for the Ministry (2020-21) (in %)

Expenditure head

Allocation (%)

Samagra Shiksha 

39%

Mid-Day Meal Programme

11%

Autonomous Bodies

9%

Grants to Central Universities

8%

IITs

7%

UGC and AICTE

5%

Others

20%

Total

100%

Note: Autonomous Bodies include Kendriya Vidyalaya and Sangathan, Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti.

 ‘Others’ includes other schemes and programmes under the Ministry each with an allocation of less than 5% of the total expenditure. 

Sources: Expenditure Budget, Vol. 2, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2020-21; PRS.

Budget speech highlights 2019-20

  • A new National Education Policy will be released.  The new Policy proposes major changes in both school education and higher education.  
      
  • To ensure greater inflow of finance in education, steps will be taken to enable sourcing external commercial borrowings and Foreign Direct Investment in India.  
     
  • About 150 higher educational institutions will start apprenticeship embedded degree and diploma courses by March 2021.
     
  • As part of the ‘Study in India’ which focuses on bringing foreign students to study in Indian higher educational institutions, the government will hold Ind-SAT in Asian and African countries.   

Department of School Education and Literacy 

In 2020-21, the Department has been allocated Rs 59,845 crore, a 5.9% increase over the revised estimates of 2019-20.1  Figure 1 shows the allocation of the Department of School Education and Literacy over the past 10 years (2010-20). 

Figure 1: Allocation to Department of School Education and Literacy (2010-20) (in Rs crore)

 

Note: Revised estimates have been used for 2019-20 and Budget estimates for 2020-21.

Sources: Union Budgets, 2010-20; PRS.

Note that in 2015-16, the allocation was reduced by 9%.  Since then, the allocation has been on an upward trajectory.  Between 2010-11 and 2020-21, allocation to the Department has grown at an average annual rate of 5%.  Table 3 compares actual allocation of the Department with the budget estimates.  The utilisation in the last three years has been over 97% of the budget estimates.

Table 3: Comparison of budget estimates and the actual expenditure   (2010-19) (in Rs crore)

Year

Budget

estimate

Actuals

Actuals/BE (%)

2010-11

33,214

36,433

110%

2011-12

41,451

40,641

98%

2012-13

48,781

45,631

94%

2013-14

52,701

46,856

89%

2014-15

55,115

45,722

83%

2015-16

42,220

41,800

99%

2016-17

43,554

42,989

99%

2017-18

46,356

46,600

101%

2018-19

50,000

        48,441 

97%

2019-20

  56,537 

      56,537* 

*100%

Note: BE – Budget Estimate. *Revised Estimate

Sources: Union Budgets, 2012-20; PRS.

Table 4 presents the details of the Department’s allocation in 2020-21.  In July 2018, the Ministry launched the ‘Samagra Shiksha’ scheme, which subsumed three schemes, namely: (i) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (class 1-8), (ii) Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (class 9-12), and (iii) Teacher Education. 

In 2020-21, expenditure on centrally sponsored schemes (Samagra Shiksha and Mid-Day Meal Programme in Schools) constitute 87% of the estimated spending of the Department of School Education and Literacy.   

Table 4 Allocation to the Department of School Education and Literacy in 2020-21 (in Rs crore)

Major Head

2018-19 Actuals

2019-20 RE

2020-21 BE

% change (RE to BE)

National Education Mission 

29,437 

36,292 

38,861 

7.1%

Samagra Shiksha 

 

36,274 

38,751 

6.8%

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

25,616 

 

 

 

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan

3,399 

 

 

 

Teachers Training and Adult Education

422 

18 

110 

514.5%

National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools

9,514 

9,912 

11,000 

11.0%

Autonomous bodies

8,588 

9,754 

9,205 

-5.6%

Scholarships

484 

423 

483 

14.2%

Others

418 

155 

297 

91.3%

Total

48,441 

56,537 

59,845 

5.9%

Note: BE – Budget Estimate; RE – Revised Estimates. 

Sources: Expenditure Budget, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Union Budget 2020-21; PRS. 

  • Samagra Shiksha has been allocated Rs 38,751 crore in 2020-21.   This is an increase of 6.8% from the revised estimates of 2019-20.  Note that, Teacher Training and Adult Education (subsumed under Samagra Shiksha) has been allocated Rs 110 crore in 2020-21.  This is an increase of 515% from the revised estimates of 2019-20.  However, the Department had budgeted to spend Rs 125 crore in 2019-20 which was revised down to Rs 18 crore. 
     
  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDMS):  Expenditure on Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDMS) increased by about 11% in 2020-21 from the revised estimates of 2019-20.  The MDMS targets children in the same age group as covered by the SSA (6 to 14 years). 
  • Autonomous bodies:   Autonomous bodies like the National Council of Educational Research and Training, and Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan saw a decrease in their allocation by 5.6% (from the revised estimates of last year) and were allocated Rs 9,205 crore in 2020-21.
  • Scholarships:  Scholarships saw an increase of 14.2% in its allocation in 2020-21.  Scholarships provided by the Ministry include provisions of Rs 6,000 per year to one lakh meritorious students of economically weaker sections.  The aim is to reduce drop-out of students in class eight and encourage them to continue schooling till class 12.  

Issues in school education

Enrolment, transition and dropout rates

Enrolment:  Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is the student enrolment as a proportion of the corresponding eligible age group in a given year.  In 2015-16, enrolment in classes 1-5 was about 99.2%, which signals a more age appropriate (six to 10 years) class composition (see Figure 2). [2]

Figure 2: Changes in GER in school education

Sources:  Education statistics at a glance, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2018; PRS.

The GER at the upper primary (92.8%), secondary (80%) and senior secondary (56.2 %) levels have increased in the last few years.  Note that, while enrolment has gone up at the secondary level, overall there is a decline in the number of children staying in school (See Figure 7).  

Also, the amount of funds being spent on elementary education (class 1-8) has been significantly higher than the expenditure on secondary education (class 9-12). Table 5 captures the expenditure for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan since 2014-15.  

Table 5:  Expenditure under school education schemes (in Rs crore)

Year

SSA

RMSA

Total

2014-15

24,123

3,398

27,521

2015-16

21,590

3,562

25,152

2016-17

21,678

3,699

25,377

2017-18

19,319

3,602

22,921

Year

Samagra Shiksha

2018-19

29,294

2019-20

25,404

Note:  Numbers for 2019-20 are as of January 1, 2020.  SSA and RMSA subsumed under Samagra Shiksha in 2018-19.

Source: Lok Sabha, Unstarred Question No. 205, Ministry of Human Resource Development, February 3, 2020; PRS.

India’s enrolment rate in primary education (class 1-5) is comparable to that of developed countries.  However, it falls behind these countries after class 6 (see Figure 3).

Figure 3:  International comparison of GER (2015) (in %)

 

Sources:   Education statistics at a glance, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2018; PRS.

Attendance:  Attendance is the ratio of the number of persons in the official age group attending a particular class-group to the total number persons enrolled in school in that age-group.  The attendance for both boys and girls falls as the level of education rises in school education.  As Figure 4 indicates there is negligible difference between the attendance of boys and girls. 

Figure 4: Attendance in school education

Sources:  Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India: Education, NSSO, 2018; PRS.

Transition and dropouts: The dropout rate peaks at the secondary level (class 9-10) at 17% as compared to 4% in elementary school (class 1-8) and 2% in upper secondary school (class 11-12) (see Figure 5).   This is also reflected in the transition rates in school education where the lowest transition rate is at the secondary level (class 10 to 11) at 66%.  Note that a transition rate below 100% indicates that the students are held back or have dropped out of school.  

Figure 5: Dropout rate in school education (2014-15) (%)

Sources:  Education statistics at a glance, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2016; PRS.

According to NSSO data (2018), the key reasons for females dropping out is to engage in domestic activities (30%), lack of interest in education (15%), and marriage (13%).  On the other hand, the key reasons for males dropping out is to engage in economic activities (37%), financial constraints (24%), and lack of interest in education (19%). [3]

Till 2019, under the RTE Act, a child could not be expelled or detained until the completion of elementary education (until class 8). However, RTE Act was amended in 2019 to remove the provision related to no-detention to address low learning outcomes.   Note that, the Draft National Education Policy (2019) recommends that the amendments to the RTE Act on continuous and comprehensive evaluation and the no detention policy must be reviewed.  It states that there should be no detention of children till class eight. Instead, schools must ensure that children are achieving age appropriate learning levels. [4]  

Quality of learning

Elementary education:  Over the years, expert committees have made some adverse observations regarding the learning outcomes of children.  The Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE, 2014), National Achievement Survey (2012 and 2017), and the Economic Survey (2016-17) observed declining learning levels in elementary education even after the implementation of the RTE Act. [5], [6] , [7] ,[8]  

As per the Annual Status of Education Report, between 2014 to 2018, there has been a gradual improvement in both basic literacy and numeracy for class three students but still only 25% of them are at grade level (ability to read and do basic operations like subtraction of class two level).  The report also shows that one out of four children leaving class eight are without basic reading skills (ability to read at least at class two level). [9] 

Under the RTE Act, children are enrolled in the class that corresponds to their age, irrespective of their learning levels.  This results in a situation where in the same class, depending on when they are enrolled in school, children may have different learning requirements.  It has been recommended that special training be organised and is of flexible duration to enable the child to be at par with other children and to ensure his integration with the class. [10]   Note that, the RTE Rules were amended in February 2017 to include class-wise, subject-wise learning outcomes till class eight. [11] 

Secondary education:  In the National Achievement Survey (2015) for class 10, in the English subject, 24% students were in the range of 0-35% score and 61% students were in the range of 36-50% score.  Further, 35% students were in 0-35% scores, and 49% students were in the range of 36-50% scores in Mathematics. [12]

Nature of assessment:  Under the RTE Act, the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) method is used for evaluating learning levels in elementary education.  It includes paper-pencil tests, drawing and reading pictures, and expressing orally, and is different than the traditional system of examinations.  However, CCE has not been adequately implemented or monitored.5  It has been recommended that proper design of assessment and using this information can help improve the quality and innovation in terms of teaching and learning. [13]  

Note that the RTE Act 2009 has been amended state that a regular examination will be held in class 5 and class 8 at the end of every academic year.  If a child fails the exam, he will be given additional instruction, and take a re-examination.  If he fails in the re-examination, the relevant central or state government may decide to allow schools to detain the child.   

The Draft National Education Policy (2019) noted that the current education system solely focuses on rote learning of facts and procedures.  Hence, it recommends that the curriculum load in each subject should be reduced to its essential core content.  This would make space for holistic, discussion and analysis-based learning.4

Other issues

Teachers related issues:  Experts  [MK1]  have identified various issues with regard to the role of teachers to address the challenges confronting elementary education.4, [14] ,10  These include: (i) low teacher accountability and appraisal, (ii) poor quality of the content of teacher-education and changes required in the curriculum of B. Ed and D. Ed courses, (iii) need for continuous in-service teacher training and upgradation of skill set, (iv) inadequate pupil teacher ratio and deployment of teachers for non-educational purposes, (v) teacher vacancies, and (vi) excessive recruitment of contract/para teachers.   

In 2017, nine lakh posts of teachers were vacant in elementary schools. [15]  Further, more than one lakh teacher posts were vacant in secondary schools.  The draft National Education Policy (2019) recommends that teachers should be deployed with a particular school complex (comprising one secondary school and all the public schools in its neighbourhood) for at least five to seven years.  Further, teachers should not be allowed to participate in any non-teaching activities (such as cooking mid-day meals or participating in vaccination campaigns) during school hours that could affect their teaching capacities.

For teacher training, the draft Policy recommends that existing B.Ed. programme be replaced by a four-year integrated B.Ed. programme that combines high-quality content, pedagogy, and practical training.  An integrated continuous professional development will also be developed for all subjects.  Teachers will be required to complete a minimum of 50 hours of continuous professional development training every year.

The Right to Education Act, 2009 (RTE Act):  Currently, the RTE Act provides for free and compulsory education to all children from the age of six to 14 years. The draft National Education Policy (2019) recommended extending the ambit of the RTE Act to include early childhood education and secondary school education. 

School accountability:  In 2014, CABE recommended introducing a performance management system for all teachers, school leaders, and department officials, with performance measures linked with student learning outcomes.5  Such measures of school accountability exist in other countries.  For example, in the United States, under the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are required to do annual assessment of learning outcomes in reading and mathematics for students from classes 3 to 8.   [MK2]  If the school fails to achieve minimum test scores then the consequences include removal of teachers or the headmaster from service, school restructuring or closure, and an option for students to transfer to another school. [16] 

Department of Higher Education

The Department of Higher Education has been allocated Rs 39,467 crore in 2020-21, a 3% increase over the revised estimate of 2019-20.   Figure 6 depicts the allocation to the Department of Higher Education since 2010-11.  

Expenditure on education by the centre and the states as a proportion of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been around 3%  between 2014-15 to 2018-19. [17]  Out of this figure, roughly 1% is spent on higher education in India.  

Figure 6: Allocation to the Department of Higher Education (2010-20) (in Rs crore)

Note: Revised estimates have been used for 2019-20 and budget estimates for 2020-21.

Sources: Union Budgets, 2008-20; PRS.     

Table 6 indicates the actual allocation of the Department compared to the budget estimates of that year.  The utilisation has been over 90% of the budget estimates in the last three years as seen in the table.  In 2016-17 and 2017-18, the Department exceeded its budget estimates, i.e., crossed 100% utilisation.

Table 6: Comparison of budget estimates and the actual expenditure (2010-19) (in Rs crore)

Year

Budget Estimate

Actuals

Actuals/BE (%)

2010-11

16,690

15,472

93%

2011-12

21,912

19,505

89%

2012-13

25,275

20,423

81%

2013-14

26,750

24,465

91%

2014-15

27,656

23,152

84%

2015-16

26,855

25,439

95%

2016-17

28,840

29,026

101%

2017-18

33,330

33,614 

101%

2018-19

35,010

31,904 

91%

2019-20

38,317 

38,317* 

100%

Note: BE – Budget Estimate. *Revised Estimate

Sources: Union Budgets, 2010-20 PRS.

Table 7 provides the major heads of financial allocation under the Department for 2020-21.

Table 7: Allocation to the Department of Higher Education in 2020-21 (in Rs crore)

Major Heads

2018-19 Actuals

2019-20 RE

2020-21 BE

% change (RE to BE)

Grants to Central Universities

6,599 

8,287 

7,643 

-8%

IITs

5,590 

6,560 

7,332 

12%

UGC and AICTE

5,114 

4,857 

  5,109 

5%

NITs

3,389 

3,547 

3,885 

10%

Student Financial Aid

1,897 

2,321 

2,316 

0%

Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA)

2,263 

2,100 

2,200 

5%

Improvement in salary of teachers

469 

1,800 

1,900 

6%

IISERs

620 

841 

896 

7%

IIMs

351 

501 

476 

-5%

Digital India-e-learning

455 

541 

444 

-18%

World Class Institutions

127

325

400

23%

IIITs

428 

375 

393 

5%

Research and Innovation

205 

340 

307 

-10%

 Rashtriya Uchhatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) 

1,393 

1,380 

300 

-78%

Others

3,005 

4,543 

5,864 

29%

Grand Total

31,904 

38,317 

39,467 

3%

Sources: Expenditure Budget, Vol. 2, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Union Budget 2020-21; PRS. 

Key allocation trends are as follows:

  • About 51% of the Department’s expenditure has been allocated to central universities (as grants), IITs, and statutory and regulatory bodies (University Grants Commission (UGC) and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)).  
  • The bulk of the enrolment in higher education is handled by state universities and their affiliated colleges.  However, these state universities receive small amounts of grants from the Union Budget.  Nearly 65% of the UGC’s budget is utilised by the central universities and their colleges while state universities and their affiliated colleges get only the remaining 35%.18  The Standing Committee on Human Resource Development (2016) recommended that the mobilisation of funds in state universities should be explored through other means such as endowments, and contributions from industry and alumni. [18]
     
  • The Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA) has been allocated Rs 2,200 crore for 2020-21, a 5% decrease over the revised estimates of 2019-20.  HEFA is tasked with the creation of high quality infrastructure in premier educational institutions.  All the centrally funded higher educational institutions are eligible for joining as members of the HEFA. [19]  Note that HEFA is jointly promoted by Canara Bank and the Ministry of Human Resource Development with an authorised capital of Rs 10,000 crore.  HEFA has been tasked to mobilise one lakh crore rupees to meet the infrastructure needs of higher educational institutions by 2022.  So far, the HEFA has approved 75 projects of higher and medical educational institutions amounting to Rs 25,565 crore. [20]
     
  • Allocation to World Class Institutions in 2020-21 is Rs 400 crore, an increase of 23% from the revised estimates of 2019-20.  The government has selected ten private institutions and eight public institutions as institutes of eminence. [21]  These institutions will have greater autonomy in admitting foreign students, fixing fees, and recruiting foreign faculty.  Further, each public institution declared as an institute of eminence will get financial assistance of up to Rs 1,000 crore over the period of five years.
  • The funding allocation for Rashtriya Uchchtar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) has significantly decreased by 78% at Rs 300 crore (from the 2019-20 revised estimates).  RUSA aims to improve the overall quality of existing state higher educational institutions by ensuring conformity to prescribed norms and standards.  Note that, in 2018, the Union Cabinet approved the continuation of the scheme till March 31, 2020.

Issues in the higher education sector 

Enrolment levels

In India, GER in higher education has almost tripled over a period of 15 years, going from 9% in 2002-03 to 26% in 2017-18 (see Figure 7). [22], [23]   

Figure 7: GER in higher education (2010-18)

Sources:  All India Survey on Higher Education, 2017-18; PRS.

A GER of 26% implies that 26% of people in the target age-group are enrolled in universities.   The GER for higher education in India is fairly low compared to other countries such as the UK and USA (Figure 8).   The draft National Education Policy (2019) states that it aims to increase GER to 50% by 2035.4

Figure 8: International comparison of GER in higher education (in %)

Sources:  Education Statistics at a Glance, Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2018; PRS.

Student enrolment is highest at the UG level (79.2%) followed by PG (11.2%).  The recent AISHE 2017-18 report reveals that student enrolment decreases as one goes further higher from the undergraduate level of education.23 

Regulatory issues in higher education

Over the years, several expert bodies such as the National Knowledge Commission (2009), the Yashpal Committee (2010), and the Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy (2016) have suggested measures to reform higher education to address issues related to access, quality, funding and governance. [24],[25],[26]    Noting that the current system is overregulated but under governed, they recommended consolidating all existing regulators under an independent regulator.  This body was envisaged to perform its regulatory functions without interfering with the academic and institutional autonomy of higher educational institutions.4 

The Draft National Education Policy (2019) proposed setting up of the National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA).4  This independent authority would replace the existing individual regulators in higher education, including professional and vocational education.  This implies that the role of all professional councils such as the Bar Council of India would be limited to setting standards for professional practice.  UGC’s role would be limited to providing grants to higher education institutions.

Note that the government had released the draft Higher Education Commission of India (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act) Bill, 2018 in June 2018.  It seeks to replace the UGC and set up a Higher Education Commission. [27] 

Quality standards in higher education

Currently, there are two accrediting institutions – (i) the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) established by AICTE, and (i) the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established by UGC.  In terms of the quality of universities, out of 323 universities accredited by the NAAC in the most recent cycle, only 23 universities have been given an ‘A+’ grade. [28]

The Standing Committee on Human Resource Development (2016) noted that accreditation of higher educational institutions needs to be at core of the regulatory arrangement in higher education.  Credit rating agencies, reputed industry associations, and professional bodies should be encouraged to rate Indian universities and institutions. [29]  

The draft National Education Policy (2019) recommended separating NAAC from the UGC into an independent and autonomous body.4  In its new role, NAAC will function as the top level accreditor, and will issue licenses to different accreditation institutions, who will assess higher educational institutions once every five to seven years.  All existing higher education institutions should be accredited by 2030. 

Private sector and profit motive in higher education

A UGC report in 2012 noted that the distribution of public and private institutions in India is skewed.  This is because enrolment in public universities is largely concentrated in conventional disciplines (arts and sciences) whereas in private institutions, more students are enrolled in market-driven disciplines (engineering, management, etc.). [30]   Thus, with a rise in private universities, there is a mismatch of the demand and supply of subject disciplines in the private sector education.

The National Knowledge Commission noted that  [pm3]  while private investment is high in the disciplines of engineering, medicine and management; majority of enrolment is still taking place in the traditional disciplines like arts.25  The Yashpal Committee further noted have stated that the private sector should not confine itself to the commercially viable sectors such as management, accountancy, and medicine as this leads to the responsibility of the government to maximise enrolment in general subjects. [pm4]  24 

Fee Structure

The Standing Committee on Human Resource Development has been observed that many private institutions of higher education charge exorbitant fees.  [31]  In the absence of well-defined norms, fees charged by such universities have remained high.  UGC regulates fees for courses offered in deemed universities, to an extent.  They  [pm5]  state that the fees charged shall be directly linked to the cost of running the course and the institution shall ensure non-commercialisation of education.  In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that the fees charged by private unaided educational institutes could be regulated. [32]  Also, while banning capitation fee (fees exceeding the tuition fee), it allowed institutes to charge a reasonable surplus. 

AICTE had constituted a Committee in 2014 under Justice Srikrishna to recommend the fee to be charged by the private technical educational institutes in the country. [33]  The Committee recommended the maximum tuition and development fee to be charged. [pm6] 

Teacher related issues

According to UGC, out of the total teaching posts of 17,425 in various UGC funded Central Universities, 6,141 (35%) teaching posts are lying vacant. [34]  Further, in 20 Indian Institute of Management (IIMs), out of the 1,004 total sanctioned teaching posts, 253 posts are lying vacant; [35] and in 7 IISERs and IISc, Bangalore, the total number of sanctioned teaching posts is 1,117 and 153 are lying vacant. [36]

The Standing Committee on Human Resource Development (2017) reasoned that this could be due to two reasons: (i) young students don’t find the teaching profession attractive; or (ii) the recruitment process is long and involves too many procedural formalities.18  

The Draft National Educational Policy (2019) observed that poor service conditions and heavy teaching loads at higher education institutions have resulted in low faculty motivation.4  Further, lack of autonomy and no clear career progression system are also major impediments to faculty motivation.  It recommended development of a Continuous Professional Development programme and introduction of a permanent employment (tenure) track system for faculty in all higher education institutions by 2030.  Further, a desirable student-teacher ratio of not more than 30:1 must be ensured.

Annexure

Union Budget, 2020-21

Table 1: Allocations to the Ministry of Human Resource Development for 2020-21 (in Rs crore)

Major Heads

2018-19 Actuals

2019-20 Budgeted

2019-20 Revised

Change between BE 2019-20 and RE 2019-20

2020-21 Budgeted

Change between RE 2019-20 and BE 2020-21

Department of School Education and Literacy

48,441

56,537

56,537

16.7%

59,845

5.9%

Scholarships

484

468

423

-12.6%

483

14.2%

Autonomous bodies

8,588

8,440

9,754

13.6%

9,205

-5.6%

National Education Mission

29,437

36,447

36,292

23.3%

38,861

7.1%

Samagra Shiksha

 

36,322

36,274

 

38,751

6.8%

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

25,616

   

-100.0%

   

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan

3,399

   

-100.0%

 

 

Teachers Training and Adult Education

422

125

18

-95.8%

110

514.5%

National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools

9,514

11,000

9,912

4.2%

11,000

11.0%

Others

418

181

155

-62.8%

297

91.3%

Department of Higher Education

31,904

38,317

38,317

20.1%

39,467

3.0%

Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA)

2,263

2,100

2,100

-7.2%

2,200

4.8%

Student Financial Aid

1,897

2,306

2,321

22.4%

2,316

-0.2%

Digital India-e-learning

336

456

511

52.1%

579

13.3%

Research and Innovation

205

609

340

65.7%

307

-9.5%

Statutory and regulatory bodies (UGC and AICTE)

5,114

5,059

4,857

-5.0%

5,109

5.2%

Grants to Central Universities

6,599

6,843

8,287

25.6%

7,643

-7.8%

Indian Institutes of Technology

5,590

6,410

6,560

17.4%

7,332

11.8%

Indian Institutes of Management

351

446

501

42.8%

476

-4.9%

National Institutes of Technology

3,389

3,787

3,547

4.7%

3,885

9.5%

Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISERs)

620

899

841

35.6%

896

6.5%

Indian Institutes of Information Technology(IIITs)

428

375

375

-12.5%

393

5.0%

Rashtriya Uchhatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)

1,393

2,100

1,380

-0.9%

300

-78.3%

Improvement in Salary Scale of University and College Teachers

469.17

2000

1800

283.7%

1,900

5.6%

World Class Institutions 

127

400

325

-18.0%

400

23.0%

Others

3,005

4,405 

4,543 

3.1%

5,864

29.1%

 Total 

80,345

94,854

94,854

18.1%

99,312

4.7%

Sources:  Demand for Grants, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Union Budget, 2020-21; PRS.

Indicators on school and higher education

Table 2: Enrolment in education in 2016-17 (as a percentage of respective population)

State/ UT

GER in Elementary Education

(Classes 1-8)

GER in Secondary Education

(Classes 9-12)

GER in Higher Education 

(Beyond class 12)

Primary

Upper Primary

Total Elementary

Secondary

Higher Secondary

Andhra Pradesh

82.8

82.1

82.5

76.3

60.6

32.4

Arunachal Pradesh

106.2

119.9

110.4

85.9

51.2

29.7

Assam

107.4

96.7

103.7

78.6

39.7

18.7

Bihar

98.1

103.9

99.9

76.7

28.8

13.6

Chhattisgarh

97.1

100.8

98.5

87.7

54.5

18.6

Goa

101.3

97.1

99.7

99.3

78.7

30.1

Gujarat

95.0

97.2

95.8

74.5

43.2

20.4

Haryana

93.9

94.4

94.1

86.3

60.8

29.2

Himachal Pradesh

97.9

103.0

99.8

103.9

92.0

39.6

Jammu & Kashmir

77.1

66.2

73.0

61.7

52.9

30.9

Jharkhand

96.6

91.8

95.0

63.5

37.1

19.1

Karnataka

103.7

2.9

99.7

84.4

41.9

28.8

Kerala

95.1

93.6

94.6

99.4

79.4

37.0

Madhya Pradesh

92.1

89.7

91.3

80.2

47.1

21.5

Manipur

120.6

119.3

120.2

86.5

64.4

33.7

Maharashtra

97.5

98.7

97.9

91.7

70.7

32.0

Meghalaya

129.1

128.0

128.8

83.3

40.6

25.8

Mizoram

115.7

127.5

119.3

95.9

54.6

25.7

Nagaland

81.7

90.4

84.4

61.8

36.3

18.7

Odisha

100.2

94.6

98.1

79.9

40.1

22.1

Punjab

99.3

97.7

98.7

87.1

72.2

29.5

Rajasthan

97.8

92.0

95.8

76.6

60.3

23.0

Sikkim

92.0

136.8

106.9

112.0

64.2

53.9

Tamil Nadu

102.0

93.4

98.6

93.9

83.7

49.0

Telangana

98.6

86.9

94.1

81.8

50.6

36.2

Tripura

102.4

126.4

110.0

112.3

41.9

19.2

Uttar Pradesh

87.2

72.7

82.1

67.8

59.0

25.8

Uttarakhand

96.4

86.7

92.7

84.4

77.1

39.1

West Bengal

96.3

96.3

96.3

78.6

50.9

19.3

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

86.9

83.1

85.4

84.1

72.8

23.2

Chandigarh

80.1

95.6

85.8

89.7

83.2

50.6

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

82.9

91.6

86.0

91.2

51.8

9.3

Daman & Diu

84.0

81.1

82.9

73.3

34.6

5.5

Delhi

109.2

129.0

115.9

114.4

74.2

46.3

Lakshadweep

70.0

81.4

79.8

105.7

97.9

7.4

Puducherry

85.6

84.8

85.3

87.5

74.2

46.4

India

95.1

90.7

93.6

79.4

55.4

26.3

Note: Enrolment rate can exceed 100% due to early or late school entrance and grade repetition, or for example, children not in the 6-14 age group still being enrolled in elementary school.  Data for higher education is of 2018.

Sources: Flash Statistics, DISE 2016-17; AISHE 2018-19, Ministry of Human Resource Development; PRS. 

Table 3: Pupil Teacher Ratio (2015-16) 

State/UT

Management Type (in %) (2016-17)

Pupil Teacher Ratio (2015-16)

Private schools 

Government schools

Others 

Primary (Classes 1-5)

Upper Primary (Classes 6-8)

Secondary (Classes 9-10)

Higher secondary (Classes 11-12)

Higher (Beyond class 12)

Andhra Pradesh

 26.4 

72.6

 0.89 

21

16

20

71

18

Arunachal Pradesh

13.6

85.2

 1.08 

12

7

22

37

31

Assam

 13.7

 74.2

 12.07 

21

13

14

20

31

Bihar

5.4

 88.1 

 6.38 

36

24

66

59

61

Chhattisgarh

 12.5 

 57.7

2.49 

20

17

33

27

28

Goa

 34.7 

56.2

-

20

16

13

18

16

Gujarat

34.9 

65.9

0.01

19

13

34

29

26

Haryana

32.3 

 63.5

 4.12 

20

13

15

15

26

Himachal Pradesh

 14.9

 85.07 

 0.01 

12

10

18

14

27

Jammu & Kashmir

 18.3 

 81.6

 0.01 

9

6

15

29

35

Jharkhand

5.4 

83.8 

10.75 

27

19

62

78

60

Karnataka

34.3 

 65.5

0.07 

19

13

16

30

15

Kerala

61.1 

29.5 

 9.28 

18

14

17

21

18

Madhya Pradesh

18.4

 80.4

 1.11 

20

18

39

38

33

Maharashtra

37.5 

 61.7 

 0.64 

24

17

23

44

27

Manipur

 30.8 

 66.7

 2.43 

12

8

12

19

22

Meghalaya

 44.8 

 53.6 

 1.52 

21

13

12

21

26

Mizoram

 31.8 

 66.7 

 1.44 

14

6

9

15

18

Nagaland

 25.9 

 74.0 

 -   

10

6

15

21

19

Odisha

 14.2 

 82.3 

 3.61 

17

14

20

45

27

Punjab

 25.9 

 71.0 

 3.07 

18

12

16

26

18

Rajasthan

 32.3 

 63.8 

 2.52 

17

10

21

32

29

Sikkim

 33.6 

 66.3 

 -   

5

5

17

15

27

Tamil Nadu

 33.2 

 66.0 

 0.7 

18

15

21

25

17

Telangana

30.9 

68.2 

 0.88

23

15

22

47

18

Tripura

7.08 

 88.8 

 4.07 

10

8

28

11

33

Uttar Pradesh

34.4 

66.4 

 4.03 

39

31

56

97

46

Uttarakhand

10.1 

86.2 

 3.56 

18

17

16

25

27

West Bengal

 10.7 

 86.0 

 3.14 

25

27

39

57

35

Andaman & Nicobar Islands 

 17.1 

 83.0 

 -   

8

6

14

16

25

Chandigarh

 39.8 

57.7 

2.49 

13

9

13

28

28

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

12.3 

 86.7 

 0.86 

17

13

30

30

29

Daman & Diu

 17.1 

82.0 

 -   

26

14

17

13

14

Delhi

51.3 

48.7 

 -   

24

17

30

21

52

Lakshadweep

 -   

 100.0 

 -   

7

7

7

12

12

Puducherry

42.4 

57.5 

 -   

14

9

11

17

13

India

 25.2

71.7

3.04     

23

17

27

37

26

Note:  Government schools consist of schools run by department of education, tribal/social welfare department, local body, other government and central government.   Private schools consist of private aided and private unaided schools, ‘Others’ comprises Madrasas and unrecognised schools.  Type of management of schools is for 2016-17. Pupil teacher ratio is for 2015-16, except for higher education which is for 2018-19.

Sources: Flash Statistics, U-DISE 2016-17; AISHE 2018-19, Educational Statistics at a Glance 2018; Ministry of Human Resource Development; PRS

[2] Educational Statistics at a Glance 2018, Ministry of Human Resource Development,  https://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/statistics-new/ESAG-2018.pdf.

[3] Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, NSS 75th Round, June 2018, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation,  http://www.mospi.gov.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/KI_Education_75th_Final.pdf.

[4]  “Draft National Education Policy”, Ministry of Human Resource Development, May 31, 2019,  https://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/Draft_NEP_2019_EN_Revised.pdf .

[5]. “Report of CABE Sub Committee on Assessment on implementation of CCE and no detention provision”, 2015, Ministry of Human Resource Development,  http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/document-reports/AssmntCCE.pdf.    

[6] A summary of India’s National Achievement Survey, Class VIII, 2012, National Council of Educational Research and Training,  http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/11-March-National-Summary-Report-NAS-Class-VIII.pdf.

[7] National Achievement Survey 2017, Dashboard,  http://nas.schooleduinfo.in/dashboard/nas_ncert#/.

[9]  Economic Survey, 2018-19, Ministry of Finance,  https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/economicsurvey/doc/vol2chapter/echap10_vol2.pdf.

[10] “Report to the People on Education”, 2011-12, Ministry of Human Resource Development,  http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/document-reports/RPE_2011-12.pdf.

[11] The RTE (Amendment) Rules, 2017, Ministry of Human Resource Development,  https://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/RTE_Amendment_2017.pdf.

[12] National Achievement Survey (2015), Class X, National Council of Educational Research and Training,  http://www.ncert.nic.in/departments/nie/esd/pdf/NASSummary.pdf.

[13]  World Development Report, 2018, World Bank,  http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2018

[14] “Implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009”, Comptroller and Auditor General of India, July 21, 2017,  http://www.cag.gov.in/content/report-no23-2017-compliance-audit-union-government-implementation-right-children-free-and.

[15] Lok Sabha, Unstarred Question No. 76, Ministry of Human Resource Development, February 3, 2020,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/173/AU76.pdf.

[16]  K-12 Education: Highlights of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service, February 28, 2005,  https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824710/m1/1/.

[17]  ‘Social Infrastructure, Employment, and Human Development’,  Chapter 10, Economic Survey, 2019-20, Ministry of Finance,  https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/economicsurvey/doc/vol2chapter/echap10_vol2.pdf.

[18] “Report no. 284: Issues and Challenges before the Higher Educational Sector in India”, Standing Committee on on Human Resource Development, December 14, 2016,  http://164.100.47.5/newcommittee/reports/EnglishCommittees/Committee%20on%20HRD/284.pdf.

[19] “Cabinet approves establishment of Higher Education Financing Agency for creating capital assets in higher educational institutions”, Press Information Bureau, Cabinet, September 12, 2016.

[20] Year End Revie 2019- Ministry of Human Resource Development Press Information Bureau, January 6, 2020.

[21] Lok Sabha, Unstarred Q No. 44, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Answered on November 18, 2019,  http://loksabhaph.nic.in/Questions/QResult15.aspx?qref=6362&lsno=17.

[22]  All India Survey on Higher Education, 2014-15, Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Department of Higher Education,  http://aishe.nic.in/aishe/viewDocument.action?documentId=206

[23] All India Survey on Higher Education, 2017-18, Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Department of Higher Education,  http://aishe.nic.in/aishe/viewDocument.action?documentId=245.

[24]  “ Report of the Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education”, 2009,  http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/document-reports/YPC-Report.pdf.

[25]  “Report to the Nation: 2006-2009”, National Knowledge Commission, March 2009,  http://www.aicte-india.org/downloads/nkc.pdf.

[26] Report of the Committee on the Evolution of the New Education Policy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, March 30, 2016, http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/Report%20Summaries/Committee%20Rep... %20Education%20Policy.pdf.

[27] The Draft Higher Education Commission (Repeal of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956) Bill, 2018,  http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/HE_CoI_India_2018_act.pdf

[28] Accreditation Status, National Accreditation and Assessment Council,  http://web5.kar.nic.in/naac_ec/NAAC_accreditlist_pdf.aspx.

[29] Report no. 284: Issues and Challenges before the Higher Educational Sector in India”, Standing Committee on Human Resource Development, December 14, 2016,  http://164.100.47.5/newcommittee/reports/EnglishCommittees/Committee%20on%20HRD/284.pdf.

[30]  “Inclusive and Qualitative Expansion of Higher Education 2012-17”, University Grants Commission, November 2011,  http://www.ugc.ac.in/ugcpdf/740315_12FYP.pdf

[31]  “236th Report on the Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Educational Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010”, Standing Committee on Human Resource Development, May 30, 2011.

[32]  TMA Pai Foundation vs. State of Karnataka & Ors [(1994)2SCC195].

[33] Report of the National Fee Committee constituted by AICTE, April 17, 2015, AICTE,  https://www.aicte-india.org/downloads/Justice%20B.%20N.%20Srikrishna%20Committee%20Report.pdf.

[34] Lok Sabha, Starred Question No. 127, Vacant Faculty Positions in CUs, Ministry of Human Resource Development, February 4, 2019 

[35] Lok Sabha unstarred question No. 1900, Ministry of Human Resource Development, July 2018,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/15/AU1900.pdf

[36] Starred question no. 33, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Lok Sabha, February 2, 2018,  http://164.100.47.190/loksabhaquestions/annex/14/AS33.pdf.

 

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