The Ministry of Jal Shakti is responsible for the development, maintenance and efficient use of water resources in the country and coordination of drinking water and sanitation programs in rural areas.   The Ministry was created in 2019 by integrating the Ministries of: (i) water resources, river development, and Ganga rejuvenation, and (ii) drinking water and sanitation.

This note presents budgetary allocations to the Ministry of Jal Shakti, and analyses various issues related to water resources in the country and the schemes implemented by the Ministry.

Allocations in Union Budget 2020-21

In 2020-21, the Ministry of Jal Shakti received an allocation of Rs 30,478 crore.  This is an increase of Rs 4,600 crore (18%) over the revised estimates of 2019-20.  Table 1 provides details on allocations to the two departments under the Ministry.

Table 1: Budgetary allocation to the Ministry of Jal Shakti (in Rs crore)

Department

Actuals (18-19)

Revised (19-20)

Budgeted (20-21)

% change (RE to BE)

Drinking Water and Sanitation

 18,412 

 18,360 

 21,518 

17%

Water Resources

 7,422 

 7,518 

 8,960 

19%

Total

25,834

25,878

30,478

18%

Note: BE is budget estimate and RE is revised estimate.

Sources: Demands for Grants 2020-21, Ministry of Jal Shakti; PRS.

Policy proposals for Jal Shakti in Union Budget 2020-21 

  • Cities with over a million population will be encouraged to provide piped water supply to all households in 2020. 
  • The government will focus on solid waste collection, source segregation, and processing.  

Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation

The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation administers programs for safe drinking water and sanitation in rural areas.  It is responsible for the monitoring and implementation of Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin and the Jal Jeevan Mission (the National Rural Drinking Water Programme). [1]  

The Department has an allocation of Rs 21,518 crore, accounting for 71% of the Ministry’s allocation.  This was a 17% increase in allocation over the revised estimates of 2019-20. 

Over the past 10 years, the expenditure by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation increased at an annual growth rate of 9%.  In the last ten years, the Department saw the highest increase in expenditure (49%) in 2016-17, over the previous year.  Figure 1 below shows the trends in expenditure by the Department in the last decade.

Figure 1: Expenditure by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation ( in Rs crore) 

Note: Values for 2019-20 are revised estimates and 2020-21 are budget estimates.  Allocations before 2019-20 were towards the erstwhile Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.  

Sources: Union Budgets 2010-11 to 2020-21; PRS.

From 2011-12 (when the Department of drinking water and sanitation was created) to 2014-15, the Department’s expenditure was focused on drinking water.  From 2015 to 2019, the focus of expenditure shifted on rural sanitation.  However, since 2019-20 the allocation towards both the schemes has been approximately equal.

Figure 2: Expenditure on drinking water and rural sanitation over the years (as a % of Department’s expenditure)

Note: Values for 2019-20 are revised estimates and 2020-21 are budget estimates.  

Sources: Union Budgets 2011-12 to 2020-21; PRS.

Figure 3 shows the expenditure utilisation by the Department over the last nine years (% change between actual expenditure and budgeted expenditure).  Between 2011-15, the actual expenditure was lower than the budgeted expenditure.   During 2015-18, the Department spent more than the allocated amount.  The actual expenditure in 2015-16 was 78% higher than the budgeted expenditure for the year.  However, in 2018-19 and 2019-20 (revised estimate), the expenditure was again less than the budget estimate for these years. 

Figure 3: % change between actual and budgeted expenditure

Note: The expenditure figure for 2019-20 is revised estimate.

Sources: Union Budgets 2011-12 to 2020-21; PRS.

Schemes under the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation

Expenditure by the Department is primarily towards the two major schemes, the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) and the Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G).  Table 2 provides details on allocation to the Department over the past three years.

Table 2: Budgetary allocation to the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (in Rs crore)

Major head

Actual 18-19

Revised 19-20

Budgeted 20-21

% change (20-21 BE/ 19-20 RE)

JJM

 5,484 

 10,001 

11,500

15.0%

SBM-G

12,913

 8,338 

 9,994 

19.9%

Others

 15 

 21 

24

13.6%

Total

18,412

18,360

21,518

17.2%

Note: RE is Revised Estimates, BE is Budget Estimates.

Sources: Demands for Grants 2020-21, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation; PRS.

JJM aims to provide adequate and safe drinking water to the rural population in the country.  It has been allocated Rs 11,500 crore in 2020-21, which is a 15% increase over the revised estimates of 2019-20.  SBM-G aims to achieve universal sanitation coverage and improve cleanliness in the country.  It has been allocated Rs 9,994 crore in 2020-21, which is a 20% increase over the revised estimates of 2019-20.  

Department of Water Resources

The Department of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation is responsible for: (i) planning, policy formation, and coordination of water resources in the country, (ii) scrutiny and monitoring of irrigation and flood control projects, (iii) supporting state level activities for ground water development, and (iv) reduction of pollution and rejuvenation of rivers. [2]  

In 2020-21, the Department has an allocation of Rs 8,960 crore, accounting for 29% of the Ministry’s allocation.  This is 19% higher than the revised estimates of 2019-20.  In the past six years, expenditure by the Department of Water Resources has increased at an annual growth rate of 5%.  

Figure 4:  Expenditure by the Department of Water Resources over the years (Rs crore)

Note: Values for 2019-20 and 2020-21 are revised estimates and budget estimates respectively. 

Sources: Union Budgets 2015-16 to 2020-21; PRS.

Major schemes under the Department of Water Resources

In 2020-21, 57% of the Department’s expenditure is estimated to be on the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna.  This is followed by the National River Conservation Plan (9.4%), Namami Gange (8.9%), and Water Resources Management (8.6%).

Table 3: Allocation to the Department of Water Resources (in Rs crore)

Major Head

Actuals (18-19)

Revised (19-20)

Budgeted (20-21)

% change (RE to BE)

PM Krishi Sinchai Yojna

3,439

4,026

5,127

27%

National River Conservation 

1,620

1,200

840

-30%

Namami Gange 

688

353

800

127%

Water Resources Management

569

636

775

22%

Central Water Commission

362

403

403

0%

Central Ground Water Board

227

243

245

0%

Others

1,106

1,303

1,418

9%

Total

7,422

7,518

8,960

19%

Note: BE is budget estimate and RE is revised estimate.  Others include central sector projects like river basin management, and major irrigation projects.

Sources: Demands for Grants 2020-21, Department of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti; PRS.  

Issues to consider

Irrigation 

The Economic Survey (2016-17) highlighted that 52% of the total net sown area in India is unirrigated and depends on rainfall for agriculture. [3]   It noted that when rainfall is significantly less than usual, the unirrigated areas have higher adverse effects compared to the irrigated areas.  Therefore, it argues that India needs to spread its irrigation cover.  

The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) was launched during 2015-16. [4]   The scheme seeks to: (i) expand coverage of irrigation, (ii) improve water use efficiency on farms, and (iii) introduce sustainable water conservation practices. [5]  The Jal Shakti Ministry implements certain components of the scheme, such as PMKSY – Har Khet Ko Pani and Flood Management and Borders Area Programme. 4   The other components of the scheme are implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and the Ministry of Rural Development.

Utilisation:  Figure 5 shows the expenditure on the scheme from 2016-17 to 2020-21.  The scheme has been allocated Rs 5,127 crore in 2020-21.  Its share in the Department’s expenditure increased from 35% in 2016-17 to 57% in 2020-21. 

Figure 5: Expenditure on PMKSY over the years (in Rs crore)

Sources: Union Budgets 2016-17 to 2020-21; PRS.

Har Khet ko Pani:  This scheme’s objectives include: (i) creation of new water sources, (ii) restoration and repair of traditional water bodies, (iii) command area development, and (iv) strengthening of distribution network from irrigation sources to the farm. [6], [7]

Some components of the scheme are:

Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP):  Under this scheme, financial assistance is being provided for faster completion of irrigation projects.  From June to December 2019, of the target 43 lakh hectare, projects in 29 lakh hectare (69%) were completed. [8]   

Of the 106 projects selected under the scheme, 21 (20%) projects are facing constraints such as land acquisition, legal, and contractual issues.8  

Command Area Development and Water Management Programme:   The objective of the programme is to enhance utilisation of irrigation potential created.  This is achieved through activities such as construction of field channels, land levelling, and reclamation of waterlogged area. [9]  Currently, there are 88 projects under the programme, of which only 12 (14%) have achieved more than 50% physical progress. [10]

Flood Management

The National Water Policy (2012) identifies that the climate change has deepened incidences of water related disasters like floods, increased erosion and increased frequency of droughts. [11]  The centre supports states by providing financial assistance for undertaking flood management works in critical areas through the Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (under PMKSY).  From 2016-17 to November 2019, central assistance of Rs 1,429 crore has been released under the scheme. [12]  

The Standing Committee on Water Resources (2017-18) notes that out of 522 flood management works approved under the programme during 2007-17, only 298 (57%) were completed up to March 31 2017. [13]   Further, in most of the projects, the financial progress was in the range of 10% to 30%, due to less release of funds because of inadequate budget allocation. 13 

Conservation and Rejuvenation of rivers

The Ministry of Jal Shakti implements the Namami Gange Mission with the objective of rejuvenation of river Ganga and its tributaries through activities such as treatment of municipal sewage and industrial effluents, river surface cleaning, rural sanitation, and afforestation. [14]  Currently, 114 (37%) of the 310 projects sanctioned under the Mission have been completed. [15]  

The scheme was launched with a budget outlay of Rs 20,000 crore for the period 2015-2020. [16]  During the period 2014-15 to 2018-19, Rs 6,106 crore (31%) has been spent on the programme.15  In 2020-21, the scheme has been allocated Rs 800 crore, which is 126% more than the revised estimates for 2019-20.  

Table 4 shows the trends in budget allocation and actual expenditure on Namami Gange from 2015-16.  Note that the utilisation under the scheme has always been under 50% of its allocation. 

Table 4: Budgeted versus actual expenditure on Namami Gange (in Rs crore) 

Year

Budgeted

Actuals

% of Budgeted

2015-16

-

100

-

2016-17

-

1,675

-

2017-18

2,300

700

30%

2018-19

2,300

688

30%

2019-20

750

353

47%

Note: The ‘actuals’ figure for 2019-20 is the revised estimate.

Sources: Union Budgets 2015-16 to 2019-20; PRS.

The Standing Committee on Water Resources (2017-18) notes that the physical progress under the scheme has not been satisfactory. [17]   In response to the Committee’s observations, the Ministry responded that the following bottlenecks affect the implementation of projects: (i) delay in tendering process, (ii) non-availability of land for sewage treatment plants leading to delay in execution of projects, (iii) underutilisation of sewage treatment plants’ capacities due to inadequate house sewer connections in cities, and (iv) non-effective implementation of public outreach programmes and community consultation, among others.16

Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin

In 2014, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) was launched by restructuring the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan. [18]  The Mission aimed to achieve universal sanitation coverage, improve cleanliness and eliminate open defecation in the country by October 2, 2019. [19]    

In 2020-21, the Mission has been allocated Rs 9,994 crore, which is an increase of 20% from the revised estimate of 2019-20.  The expenditure on towards rural sanitation schemes has increased from Rs 1,580 crore in 2010-11 to Rs 12,913 crore in 2018-19.  

Figure 6: Expenditure on rural sanitation scheme (in Rs crore)

Note: Values for 2019-20 and 2020-21 are revised estimates and budget estimates respectively.

Sources: Union Budgets 2009-10 to 2020-21; PRS.

Figure 6 shows the expenditure on the scheme from 2009-10 to 2020-21.  Expenditure on rural sanitation has increased at an annual growth rate of 21% from 2009-10 to 2020-21.  A significant part of this increase was seen from 2015-16 onwards, after the launch of SBM-G.  

Table 5 shows the trends in budget allocation and actual expenditure on rural sanitation over the past 11 years.  Note that from 2015-16 to 2017-18, actual expenditure on SBM-G exceeded the budget estimates.  

Table 5: Budgeted versus actual expenditure on SBM-G (in Rs crore) 

Year

Budgeted

Actuals

% of Budgeted

2009-10

1,080

1,200

111%

2010-11

1,580

1,580

100%

2011-12

1,650

1,500

91%

2012-13

3,500

2,474

71%

2013-14

3,834

2,244

59%

2014-15

4,260

2,841

67%

2015-16

3,625

6,703

185%

2016-17

9,000

10,484

116%

2017-18

13,948

16,888

121%

2018-19

15,343

12,913

84%

2019-20

9,994

8,338

83%

Note: The ‘utilised’ figure for 2019-20 is the revised estimate.

Sources: Union Budgets 2009-10 to 2019-20; PRS.

Construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs):  The cost for constructing a household toilet was increased from Rs 10,000 to Rs 12,000 in September 2014 when the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan was restructured into SBM-G. [20]  This cost for constructing toilets is shared between the centre and the state in the ratio of 60:40.  Table 6 gives the number of household toilets constructed since the inception of the scheme.   

Table 6: Toilets constructed since 2014-15

Year

Toilets Constructed

2014-15

48,51,153

2015-16

1,24,48,886

2016-17

2,16,32,580

2017-18

2,96,01,619

2018-19

2,24,49,812

2019-20

1,18,83,221

Total

10,28,67,271

Sources: SBM Dashboard, Ministry of Jal Shakti; PRS. 

As per the Department, 43.2% of the rural households had access to toilets in in 2014-15, which has increased to 100% in February 2020. [21]  Figure 7 illustrates the total coverage of household toilets since the inception of the SBM programme.  

Figure 7:  Percentage of households with toilets (2014-2019)

Sources: Management Information System Reports of SBM, Ministry of Jal Shakti; PRS. 

Open Defecation Free (ODF) villages:  Under SBM-G, a village is declared as ODF when: (i) there are no visible faeces in the village, and (ii) every household as well as public institution uses safe technology options for faecal disposal. [22]   

After a village declares itself as ODF, states are required to verify the ODF status of such a village.  Since sanitation is a state subject, the department has set some broad guidelines for ODF verification.  This includes indicators that are in accordance with the ODF verification definition, such as access to a toilet facility and its usage, and safe disposal of faecal matter through septic tanks.  

The guidelines for ODF state that since it is not a one-time process, at least two verifications must be carried out. [23]  The first verification must be carried out within three months of the declaration to verify the ODF status.  Further, to ensure sustainability of ODF, a second verification must be carried out around six months after the first verification.  

As per the Management Information System of SBM-G, a total of 6,03,175 villages across 706 districts and 36 states and union territories have been declared as ODF as of February 2020.  Of these, 5,99,266 villages (99.4%) have been verified as ODF under the first level verification. [24]  1,66,047 (28%) of these villages have been verified ODF under the second level verification. [25]  State-wise details on the number of villages declared and verified ODF are presented in the annexure.

Jal Jeevan Mission

The Jal Jeevan Mission was launched in 2019 with the aim to provide functional household tap connection to every rural household by 2024. [26]   It subsumed the National Rural Drinking Water Programme.  The total estimated cost of JJM is Rs 3.6 lakh crore. 25

In 2020-21 it has been allocated Rs 11,500 crore, which is an increase of 15% from the revised estimates of 2019-20.  In 2019-20, the scheme was allocated Rs 10,001 crore which remained the same in the revised estimate stage.  Figure 8 shows the expenditure on drinking water schemes over the last nine years.

Figure 8: Expenditure on Drinking Water schemes (in Rs crore)

Values for 2019-20 and 2020-21 are revised estimates and budget estimates respectively.

Sources: Union Budgets 2009-10 to 2018-19; PRS.

After a reduction in expenditure on the scheme from 2015-16 to 2018-19, the expenditure on the scheme increased from 2019-20 onwards.  Note that expenditure on the scheme from 2019-20 is similar to the expenditure on it before 2015-16.

Target versus achievements:  JJM aims to provide functional household tap connections to every household at the rate of 55 Litres Per Capita Per Day (LPCD).  

The coverage of the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) was monitored in terms of habitations having provision of minimum 40 LPCD of potable drinking water sources at a reasonable distance.   Table 7 gives details on rural habitations and population covered under NRDWP.  State details of coverage of rural habitations under the scheme are provided in the Annexure. [27]

Table 7: Rural habitations covered under NRDWP

Drinking water sources

% Rural habitation covered

% Population covered

More than 40 LPCD

81%

77%

Less than 40 LPCD

16%

19%

Water with quality issues

3%

4%

Note: The data is as reported by states as of December 2019.

Source: Starred Question No. 351, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, Lok Sabha; PRS.

Note that the coverage of piped-water-supply remains low.  As of December 2019, only 18.4% of rural households have piped-water supply connections. [28]  

Contamination of drinking water:  The Estimates Committee in its report on ‘Evaluation of Rural Drinking Water Programmes’ (2015) had noted that NRDWP is over-dependant on ground water. [29]  It also noted that ground water is affected by arsenic and other contaminants in several districts of the country.  

Table 8 shows the number of habitations affected due to the presence of Flouride, Arsenic, Iron, Nitrate and other contaminants.  As of January 2019, 3.6% (61,551) of the total habitations (17,24,423) were affected by contamination of ground water. [30] 

Table 8: Habitations affected by contamination of groundwater (as of January 1, 2019)

Contaminants

Number of affected habitations

% of affected habitations

Arsenic

15,795

0.9%

Fluoride

9,655

0.6%

Heavy Metal

2,106

0.1%

Iron

18,939

1.1%

Nitrate

1,562

0.1%

Salinity

13,494

0.8%

Total

61,551

3.6%

Sources: Unstarred Question No. 2738, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Rajya Sabha,  PRS.

The National Water Quality Sub-Mission (NWQSM) was launched in March 2017 to provide safe drinking water to 27,544 Arsenic/Fluoride affected rural habitations in the country, over a span of four years. [31]  

The Standing Committee on Drinking Water and Sanitation (2019-20) observed that out of these, 11,884 habitations (43%) have been covered under the scheme.  4,100 habitations (15%) have been found with quality improved on retesting or have been covered under state plan schemes.30 

Ground water depletion

Currently, 245 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) of the 398 BCM of net annual ground water availability (62%) is being utilised. [32]  However, note that ground water development is not uniform across states in India.   It has exceeded 100% in some states such as Haryana (133%), Delhi (137%), and Punjab (172%).  This implies that the annual ground water utilisation in these states is higher than the net annual ground water availability.  

The Ground Water Management and Regulation scheme was launched in 2008 with the aim to regulate and control the development of ground water resources of the country. [33]

Figure 9: Expenditure on Ground Water Management Scheme (in Rs crore) 

Note: Values for 2019-20 are revised estimates and 2020-21 are budget estimates.

Sources: Union Budgets 2011-12 to 2020-21; PRS.

Over the past ten years, the expenditure on the scheme increased at an annual growth rate of 9%.  In 2020-21, the estimated expenditure is 13% more than the revised expenditure estimates of 2019-20.  These trends are illustrated in Figure 9.

The Standing Committee on Water Resources (2019-20) recommended the Ministry to increase the budgetary support for the scheme and formulate short term and long term policies and programmes in consultation with states.   The Committee also recommended the Ministry to constitute an Expert Committee for identifying specific regions with rapidly depleting groundwater levels.

 

Annexure

Table 9: State-wise ODF declared and verified villages (as of June 2019)

State

Total Villages

Total declared

Total Verified

Total Verified 

(2nd level)

% Verified 2nd level

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

192

192

192

192

100%

Andhra Pradesh

18,841

18,841

18,841

18,819

100%

Arunachal Pradesh

5,389

5,389

5,389

5,389

100%

Assam

25,503

25,503

25,503

8,416

33%

Bihar

38,691

38,691

36,760

-

-

Chandigarh

13

13

13

-

-

Chhattisgarh

18,769

18,769

18,769

18,769

100%

Dadar and Nagar Haveli

69

69

69

69

100%

Daman and Diu

26

26

26

26

100%

Goa

365

365

18

-

-

Gujarat

18,261

18,261

18,261

18,261

100%

Haryana

6,908

6,908

6,908

6,908

100%

Himachal Pradesh

15,921

15,921

15,921

9,295

58%

Jammu and Kashmir

7,263

7,263

7,191

-

-

Jharkhand

29,564

29,564

29,333

164

1%

Karnataka

27,044

27,044

26,900

-

-

Kerala

2,027

2,027

2,027

2,027

100%

Ladakh

302

302

302

5

2%

Lakshadweep

9

9

9

-

-

Madhya Pradesh

50,228

50,228

50,228

2

-

Maharashtra

40,505

40,505

40,505

-

-

Manipur

2,556

2,556

2,556

-

-

Meghalaya

6,028

6,028

6,028

2,101

35%

Mizoram

696

696

696

537

77%

Nagaland

1,451

1,451

1,142

-

-

Odisha

46,785

46,785

46,785

-

-

Puducherry

265

265

265

265

100%

Punjab

13,726

13,726

13,700

13,700

100%

Rajasthan

42,860

42,860

42,860

-

-

Sikkim

442

442

442

429

97%

Tamil Nadu

12,524

12,524

12,524

-

-

Telangana

14,200

14,200

14,001

5,252

37%

Tripura

1,178

1,178

629

32

3%

Uttar Pradesh

97,640

97,640

97,623

20,227

21%

Uttarakhand

15,473

15,473

15,473

12,800

83%

West Bengal

41,461

41,461

41,377

22,362

54%

Total

6,03,175

6,03,175

5,99,266

1,66,047

28%

Sources:  Management Information System Reports of SBM; PRS.  

Note:  The total number of villages is taken from Census 2011.
 

Table 10:  State-wise details on number of habitations covered under National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) – as on December 9, 2019

State

Total habitations

Fully covered habitations

Partially covered habitations

Habitations with water quality issues

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

 400 

 324 

 76 

 -   

Andhra Pradesh

 48,663 

 34,578 

 13,805 

 280 

Arunachal Pradesh

 7,525 

 3,303 

 4,195 

 27 

Assam

 88,076 

 55,767 

 23,663 

 8,646 

Bihar

 1,10,218 

 70,988 

 35,422 

 3,808 

Chhattisgarh

 74,753 

 72,792 

 1,455 

 506 

Goa

 347 

 345 

 2 

 -   

Gujarat

 35,996 

 35,996 

 -   

 -   

Haryana

 7,655 

 7,305 

 263 

 87 

Himachal Pradesh

 54,469 

 42,631 

 11,838 

 -   

Jammu & Kashmir
 (including Ladakh)

 14,625 

 8,750 

 5,864 

 11 

Jharkhand

 1,20,591 

 1,19,729 

 334 

 528 

Karnataka

 59,774 

 34,345 

 24,979 

 450 

Kerala

 21,520 

 6,165 

 15,031 

 324 

Madhya Pradesh

 1,28,231 

 1,28,080 

 2 

 149 

Maharashtra

 99,641 

 84,835 

 14,636 

 170 

Manipur

 2,976 

 2,050 

 926 

 -   

Meghalaya

 10,470 

 4,124 

 6,339 

 7 

Mizoram

 720 

 490 

 230 

 -   

Nagaland

 1,450 

 742 

 708 

 -   

Odisha

 1,57,013 

 1,54,477 

 127 

 2,409 

Puducherry

 266 

 153 

 113 

 -   

Punjab

 15,190 

 10,485 

 1,500 

 3,205 

Rajasthan

 1,21,526 

 62,783 

 41,918 

 16,825 

Sikkim

 2,337 

 861 

 1,476 

 -   

Tamil Nadu

 1,00,014 

 96,876 

 3,138 

 -   

Telangana

 24,597 

 15,405 

 8,848 

 344 

Tripura

 8,723 

 5,020 

 1,326 

 2,377 

Uttar Pradesh

 2,60,018 

 2,56,913 

 1,950 

 1,155 

Uttarakhand

 39,311 

 23,202 

 16,100 

 9 

West Bengal

 1,07,328 

 61,905 

 32,100 

 13,323 

Total

 17,24,423 

 14,01,419 

 2,68,364 

 54,640 

Sources:  Starred Question No. 351, Ministry of Jal Shakti, Lok Sabha; PRS.

 

[1] Annual Report 2017-18, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation,  https://jalshakti-ddws.gov.in/sites/default/files/Annual_Report_2017-18_English.pdf.

 

[2] Functions, Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation,  http://mowr.gov.in/about-us/functions.

[3] Climate, Climate Change and Agriculture, Economic Survey 2016-17,  https://mofapp.nic.in/economicsurvey/economicsurvey/pdf/082-101_Chapter_06_ENGLISH_Vol_01_2017-18.pdf.

[4] Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No.2045, Ministry of Jal Shakti, July 4, 2019,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/171/AU2054.pdf.

[5] Website, Pradhan Mantri Krshi Sinchaee Yojna, last accessed on February 4, 2020,  https://pmksy.gov.in/.

[6] Demand no. 61, Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Union Budget 2020-21,  https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/doc/eb/sbe61.pdf.

[7] “Implementation of PMKSY”, Press Information Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare, May 2016,  https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=145004.

[8] Dashboard, Pradhan Mantri Krshi Sinchaee Yojna – Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme, Ministry of Jal Shakti, last accessed on February 4, 2020, http://pmksy-mowr.nic.in/aibp/.

[9] Salient features, Pradhan Mantri Krshi Sinchaee Yojna, Ministry of Jal Shakti,  http://mowr.gov.in/programmes/salient-features.

[10] Dashboard, Common Area Development Programme, Ministry of Jal Shakti, last accessed on February 4, 2020,  http://cadwm.gov.in/cadwm-dashboard/.

[11] National Water Policy (2012), Ministry of Water Resources,  http://mowr.gov.in/sites/default/files/NWP2012Eng6495132651_1.pdf.

[12] Lok Sabha Starred Question No.251, Ministry of Jal Shakti, December 5, 2019,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/172/AS251.pdf.

[13] “20th Standing Committee on Water Resources (2017-18)”, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Demand for Grants (2018-19).  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Water%20Resources/16_Water_Resources_20.pdf.

[14] Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No.2837, Ministry of Jal Shakti, December 5, 2019,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/172/AU2837.pdf.

[15] Targets and Achievements, National Mission for Clean Ganga, last accessed on February 4, 2020,  http://35.154.100.225/nmcg/nmcgpmtmain.aspx.

[16] Sustainable development and climate change, Volume 2, Economic Survey 2018-19.  https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/economicsurvey/doc/vol2chapter/echap05_vol2.pdf

[17]  “20th Standing Committee on Water Resources (2017-18)”, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Demand for Grants (2018-19),  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Water%20Resources/16_Water_Resources_20.pdf.

[18] Review of Sanitation Programme in Rural Areas, 8th Report, Committee on Estimates 2014-15, Lok Sabha,  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Estimates/16_Estimates_8.pdf.

[19] About SBM, Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin,  http://swachhbharatmission.gov.in/SBMCMS/about-us.htm

[20] Review of Sanitation Programme in Rural Areas, Committee on Estimates 2014-15, Lok Sabha,  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Estimates/16_Estimates_8.pdf

[21] Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin, Ministry of Jal Shakti, last accessed on February 9, 2020,  http://sbm.gov.in/sbmdashboard/IHHL.aspx

[22] Open Defecation Free (ODF) Sustainability Guidelines, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation,  http://swachhbharatmission.gov.in/sbmcms/writereaddata/images/pdf/guidelines/Guidelines-ODF-sustainability.pdf.

[23] Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin Guidelines, Ministry of Jal Shakti, last accessed on February 9, 2020,   https://jalshakti-ddws.gov.in/sites/default/files/SBM%28G%29_Guidelines.pdf

[24] Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin Dashboard, last accessed on February 4, 2020,  https://sbm.gov.in/sbmdashboard/ODF.aspx.

[25] Status of Declared and Verified villages, Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin Dashboard, Ministry of Jal Shakti, last accessed on February 4, 2020,    https://sbm.gov.in/sbmReport/Report/Physical/SBM_VillageODFMarkStatus.aspx.

[26] Background on Jal Jeevan Mission, Ministry of Jal Shakti,  https://jalshakti-ddws.gov.in/sites/default/files/JJM_note.pdf.

[27] Lok Sabha Starred Question No. 351, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, answered on December 12, 2019,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/172/AS351.pdf

[28] Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2990, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, answered on December 5, 2019,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/172/AU2990.pdf

[29] Evaluation of Rural Drinking Water Programmes, Committee on Estimates 2014-15, Lok Sabha,  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Estimates/16_Estimates_2.pdf.

[30] Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2738, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Rajya Sabha, answered on January 7, 2019.

[31] “Standing Committee on Water Resources (2019-20)”, Ministry of Jal Shakti – Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Demand for Grants (2019-20),  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Water%20Resources/17_Water_Resources_2.pdf.

[32] Review of Ground Water Scenario, need for a comprehensive policy’, Standing Committee on Water Resources, Ministry of Water Resources, December 2015,  http://164.100.47.193/lsscommittee/Water%20Resources/16_Water_Resources_5.pdf.

[33] Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No.737, Ministry of Jal Shakti, November 21, 2019,  http://164.100.24.220/loksabhaquestions/annex/172/AU737.pdf.

 

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